Mengenal History Candi Borobudur

Borobudur Temple is a Buddhist temple which is surrounded by a large garden and is in the middle of towering mountains. The following is the history and function of the temple.

Borobudur Temple is located in the village of Borobudur, Borobudur District, Magelang Regency, Central Java. Borobudur Temple is also included in the list of the seven wonders of the world. This Buddhist temple is surrounded by a large garden and is set amidst towering mountains.

Quoting from the journal The Influence of the Borobudur Temple Tourism Park on the Socio-Economic Life Conditions of the People of Magelang Regency 1980-1997 the temple building was built in the 8th century AD. This temple was inaugurated as a tourist spot on July 15, 1980. Then, Borobudur temple was designated as a World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO in 1991.

History of Borobudur Temple Quoting the journal Enchantment of Borobudur Temple as Cultural Tourism in Central Java by Reza Ayu Dewanti, Borobudur temple is a relic of the Syailendra dynasty. This temple was founded by adherents of Mahayana Buddhism. This building was built around the 8th century during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty. Borobudur Temple is the largest Buddhist temple in the world. The purpose of building Borobudur Temple was to glorify the Syailendra kings (775-850 AD) who had reunited with the god from which he came.

The temple was built as a real expression and deep respect for the ancestors. In addition, the temple building is used as an awareness of the greatness of religion. From the thesis entitled Relation of the Symbolic Meaning of Borobudur Temple with Buddhist Teachings, the maker of Borobudur temple is named Gunadarma. This temple was built in 5 stages:

1. The first stage (780 AD) The initial development was carried out on a hill. The hill was leveled and the courtyard widened. Not all materials for making the temple of andesite stone. The process of building a hill uses compacted soil and is covered with stone structures. This stone structure resembles a shell and encloses a hill of earth. Meanwhile, the rest of the hill was covered with layer by layer stone structures. The initial construction of the temple was arranged in stages like a stepped pyramid.

2 The second and third stages (792 AD) The second stage, there are the addition of two square-shaped steps. Part of the balustrade and one circular steps above it. The steps have a large single stupa. The third part is a change in the design of the building. Part of the upper steps of the circle with a single main stupa dismantled. The stupa was replaced by three circular steps, while small stupas were built in a circle lined up on the courtyard of the steps.

The big stupa is in the middle. Archaeologists suspect that initially Borobudur was designed in the form of a very large single stupa. So that the stupa is like a crown in the middle. But the large stupa was too heavy, pushing the structure. Stupa that is too big can shift the building. The core of Borobudur is just a hill, so that the pressure from above can spread downwards so that Borobudur is threatened with landslides and collapse.

Finally the main stupa was replaced with circular terraces decorated with small stupas. There is only one main stupa which functions to support the temple wall and prevent it from shifting.

3. Fourth (824 AD) and fifth stages 833 AD The temple building underwent minor changes, such as the addition of the outer balustrade, the improvement of the relief, the change of stairs, the widening of the toe, and the curvature of the gate.

Borobudur

Borobudur Temple symbolizes the universe. In Buddhism, the universe is divided into three levels, namely kamadhatu (world of desire), rupadhatu (world of form) and arupadhatu (world of formlessness). These three levels are distinguished by the temple reliefs.

This relief stretches 3 meters long. There are 1,460 frames interspersed with dividing fields totaling around 1,212 pieces. Above the row of frames there is a kind of longitudinal seam, extending for one and a half kilometers.

This seam is decorated and forms a lotus flower arrangement. Inside the bag there are 1,476 triangle-shaped simbar ornaments. At the kamadhatu and rudhatu levels there are 1,472 stupas and 432 Buddha statues circling all directions of the compass.

On the last level there are 72 stupas which surround the main stupa at the top. It took about two million stone pieces to build this monument. Borobudur Temple as a whole consists of stupas. Stupa is one of the Buddhist memorial buildings.

In Sanskrit, stupa means a mound or heap of earth. This temple is located at Borobudur in the Kedu plain area which is surrounded by Mount Merapi and Merbabu to the east, Mount Sindoro and Sumbing to the north, and the Menoreh mountains to the south.